Biology 9 Lesson 40: Review of Genetics and Variation
1. Theoretical Summary
1.1. Summary of the laws of heredity
1.2. Basic changes of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
1.3. Nature of the processes of mitosis, meiosis and fertilization
1.4. The structure and function of DNA, RNA and proteins
1.5. Types of mutations
2. Illustrated exercise
Explain the diagram: DNA (gene) → mRNA → Protein → Trait.
The diagram above illustrates the relationship between genes and traits:
- gene (DNA) → mRNA → Protein → Trait.
- This relationship suggests that DNA template synthesis of mRNA takes place in the nucleus, and mRNA serves as a template for amino acid sequence synthesis to take place in the cytoplasm of proteins and expression into traits.
- The essence of this relationship is that the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA template strand determines the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA strand, the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA strand determines the sequence of amino acids in the primary structure of a protein, from It represents a trait of the body.
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Explain the genotype, environment, and phenotype relationships. How do people apply this relationship in production practice?
Verse 2: Why does the study of human genetics have to have appropriate methods? State the basic points of those research methods.
Question 3: What does an understanding of counseling genetics do?
Question 4: What are the advantages of cell technology?
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: To induce artificial mutations, physical agents such as
A. radioactive rays, ultraviolet rays.
B. radioactive rays, thermal shock.
C. ultraviolet rays, thermal shock.
D. radioactive rays, ultraviolet rays, thermal shock.
Verse 2: What are the characteristics of radioactive rays?
A. Capable of penetrating tissues, causing chromosomal mutations.
B. Inability to penetrate deep.
C. Potentially mutagenic.
D. Used to treat microorganisms, spores and pollen grains.
Question 3: What does in vitro cloning in plants look like?
A. Helps create many new crops.
B. Helps to create a variety of crops that are resistant to environmental conditions.
C. Helps create a variety of high-yielding crops.
D. Help preserve some rare and endangered plant genetic resources.
Question 4: What are the features of proximal mating degeneration in animals?
A. The following generations grow and develop weakly.
B. Subsequent generations have reduced fertility.
C. Subsequent generations may suffer from birth defects and stillbirth.
D. All of the above characteristics.
Question 5: Which of the following is not a manifestation of hybrid superiority?
A. F1 hybrid body has high vitality, strong growth and development.
B. F1 hybrid organism has reduced yield.
C. F1 hybrid organism is more resistant to environmental conditions than the parent organism.
D. Hybrid dominance is highest in F1, then decreases over generations.
After completing this lesson, you should:
- Present and analyze the knowledge of Variation and heredity.
- Apply learned knowledge to solve exercises and explain theoretical questions.