Biology 9 Lesson 39: Practice: Learn about the achievements of livestock and plant breeding
1. Theoretical Summary
– Review the content of knowledge in the following lessons:
2. Practice Procedure
Learn about the achievements of livestock and plant breeding
2.1.Achievements in selecting plant varieties
– Hybrid rice varieties: There are 5 recognized varieties (2 varieties with 3 lines and 3 varieties with 2 lines). The 2-line hybrids (HYT102, HYT103, HYT108) have better yield and quality than the Chinese 2-line hybrids, the 3-line hybrids (HYT100) have beautiful clear rice grains, and the rice quality is equivalent to the high-quality hybrids. China’s best quality.
– Maize varieties: There are 20 newly recognized maize varieties, of which 17 are hybrids. The yield of the new variety is equivalent to that of the varieties introduced by foreign companies to Vietnam, better tolerance to drought and pests, and the price is 30-40% lower. Vietnamese corn varieties can compete with foreign varieties in the domestic market and have been exported to a number of countries in the region such as Laos and China. Increased productivity has brought a profit of about 500 billion VND/year.
– Beans: There have been 9 new peanut varieties, 12 new soybean varieties have been recognized, of which the most prominent are high-yielding peanut varieties, contributing to the national increase in peanut yield from 12.8 quintals/ha. 1999) to 21.0 quintals/ha at present. Some varieties can yield over 50 quintals/ha on a large scale.
– Fruit trees: Selected and selected 4 early ripening litchi varieties (20-25 days earlier than Thanh Ha litchi), 2 longan varieties ripening 20 days later than other varieties. The Institute is also rapidly expanding the area of V2 seedless oranges in many traditional orange regions such as Phu Quy, Anh Son (Nghe An), Cao Phong, and Hoa Binh. In addition, the Institute has also selected and domesticated many temperate fruit trees such as persimmons, pears, peaches, plums, which are being grown in some sub-regions with specific climates in the Northern mountainous region and the Central Highlands.
– Tea varieties: Currently, new tea varieties created by the Institute have occupied a high percentage of the tea area nationwide, of which varieties LPD1: 15,000ha (12%), LPD2: 18,000ha (14%), PH1: 13,000 ha (10%). Particularly in Nghe An province, the area of new tea varieties of the Institute accounts for 96%. The price of new varieties of tea has increased by 50% compared to the old varieties. In particular, some new tea varieties developed by the Institute have been used as raw materials to turn specialty oolong and green tea.
– Coffee varieties: Newly selected and created lines (TR4, TR5, TR6, TR7, TR8, TR9, TR10, TR11, TR12, TR13) with average yield of 4-6 tons of kernels/ha, weight of 100 Multiply 17 – 19g, highly resistant to rust. Compared with vegetative varieties, the coffee yield is higher from 0.5 to 1 ton of kernels/ha.
– Cassava varieties: It can be said that cassava varieties of the Institute have made great progress. New key varieties such as KM94, KM140, KM98-7 cover almost the entire cassava area in the country with a yield increase of 100% in the past 10 years, bringing the average cassava yield to nearly 18 tons/ha.
– Vegetable varieties: The hybrid tomato varieties FM20, FM29 and hybrid 9 have been created with the yield of 45 – 50 tons/ha, the hybrid cucumber varieties CV5, CV11, CV29 and CV209 are capable of growing many crops in a year with high yield. The average yield is 40-55 tons/ha, 2 hybrid hot pepper varieties HB9, HB14 have short growth period, average yield is 30-35 tons/ha, 10-15% higher than popular varieties.
– Flower varieties: From genetic resources collected in the country and imported, the Institute has selected and created 13 new varieties of species: Roses, chrysanthemums, gerberas, lilies, lilies, phalaenopsis and gladiolus. New varieties and techniques have helped the North from not being able to grow lily, so far most provinces can plant it in the Winter-Spring crop with an output of over 10 million plants (twigs)/year, the quality of flowers is not inferior. Flowers imported from Kunming, China. The flower varieties and technical processes of the Institute have been transferred to over 30 provinces. The Institute has also researched and mastered the technology of producing orchids on an industrial scale, from in vitro plant production, culture, flower processing and product trade.
– Edible mushrooms and medicinal mushrooms: Within 16 years (1996 – 2012) mushroom cultivation has been restored and developed with a rapid growth rate, from 50 tons in 1995 to 270,000 tons in 2010. At the same time , the Institute has imported 120 different strains of fungi to put into mass production 16 strains of fungi, of which, 3 strains are officially recognized, 7 varieties are temporarily recognized and 11 technological processes are approved. recognized as technical progress. Many varieties of high-quality mushrooms such as Pearl, Ngoc Tram, Longleg or Ganoderma lucidum have become popular in production.
– In addition, many new plant varieties are also being popularized such as cashew, cocoa, pink pepper banana, passion fruit, and cold tolerant rubber.
2.2 Achievements in livestock breeding
– The Institute has successfully researched and transferred into production “A hybrid sow line between two groups of Landrace × Yorkshire breeds as a background sow in commercial pig production” and “The final boar line is crossed between the two groups. like Pietrain and Duroc”. Successfully built Binh Thang brand as one of the best suppliers of breeding pigs in the South; Annually, the Institute supplies 700 boars, 2000 gilts, and 250,000 breeding chickens to 40 provinces and cities nationwide, of which 70% are in the southern provinces.
– Breeding BT2 free-range broiler chicken breed well adapted to household farming conditions, the egg yield is 195-200 eggs/hen/year, the meat yield of the male line at 12 weeks of age is 2.0 – 2.2 kg, feed consumption reached 2.4 – 2.6 kg BIRD/kgP. From 2002 up to now, the Institute has kept the original breed of two BT2 chicken lines with the number of 1000 grandparent hens/year.
– The large cattle center has provided 150 purebred Sind, Brahman, and Droughtmaster crossbred bulls to farms and livestock households to improve the local herd. The transfer of 30 good quality Murah bulls for the improvement of the local buffalo herd in Binh Phuoc province contributed to the increase in the size of the buffalo herd by about 15%.
– Researched many technical advances in animal feed such as: data banks on feed ingredients, digestibility of feeds and nutritional needs of livestock. These advances are transferred into production contributing to a reduction in feed costs by 5 – 10% and weight gain of 5 – 7%.
– Selected to create 2 dichotomous silkworm varieties D2, E38 and tetraploid hybrid GQ2218 for the North and Central region, 4 pure silkworm varieties LAREC1, LAREC2, LAREC7, LAREC8 and quadruplet silkworm TN1278 for the Central Highlands region. .
3. Report on practice results
The groups take turns to evaluate the performance report
First and last name ………….
After completing this lesson, you should:
- Present achievements in breeding livestock and plants.
- Know how to collect materials, know how to display materials according to topics.
- Able to analyze, compare and report findings from documents.