Biology 9 Lesson 37: Breeding achievements in Vietnam
1. Theoretical Summary
1.1. Achievements in plant breeding
– In our country, the most outstanding achievement in plant breeding is the selection of rice, maize and soybean varieties.
In the selection of plant varieties, four main methods are used:
- Artificial mutation.
- Sexual crossbreeding to create hybrid variation or individual selection from existing varieties.
- Create dominant hybrid varieties (in F1).
- Creating polyploid varieties.
a. Causing artificial mutations
There are 3 main methods:
- Causing artificial mutations and then selecting individuals to create new varieties.
- Combination of sexual hybridization and mutation handling.
- Select varieties by selecting mutant or mutant somatic cell lines.
Some notable achievements:
+ In rice:
- The rice variety DR2 (2000) was created from the mutant somatic cell line of the rice variety CR203, which was isolated and regenerated into a plant. DR2 rice variety has very high uniformity, good drought tolerance, average yield is 45-50 quintals/ha.
- The rice variety DT21 (2000) was created by crossing the sticky rice variety 415 with the mutant rice variety DV2 (from the yellow flower sticky rice variety).
- Rice variety DT10: By individual selection method for elite mutants, people have created rice varieties with high yield potential such as rice variety DT10, fragrant sticky rice TK106,…
+ In soybean: The soybean variety DT55 was created by mutating the soybean variety DT74 with a very short growth time, good resistance to winter and cold, large, yellow seeds.
+ In peanuts: The peanut variety V79 was created by X-ray irradiation of Bach Sa peanut seeds with healthy growth, medium and even size, easy peeling, 74% kernel/fruit ratio, high protein content. (24%), oil rate reached 24%.
+ In tomatoes: The pink orchid variety was created from a natural mutant of the Polish white tomato variety.
b. Sexual crossbreeding to create combinatorial variation or to select existing generatives
– Creating a combination variation: Rice variety DT10 x OM80 → high yield rice variety DT17, clear rice grain, sticky rice.
– Selection of varieties: From individual selection of Taiwanese tomato varieties → P375 tomato variety is suitable for intensive farming areas.
c. Breeding dominant hybrids (in F1)
- Short-term single hybrid maize LVN 20 has good resistance to falling, suitable for winter-spring crop on muddy soil, reaching 6-7 tons/ha.
- Single hybrid maize LVN 10 has a long day, has a growth period of 125 days, is drought tolerant, resistant to shedding and has good resistance to pests and diseases.
d. Creating polyploid varieties
– Bac Ninh strawberry variety tetraploid x diploid variety 2n → strawberry variety No. 12 (3n) has thick leaves, dark green color, fleshy leaves, high survival rate, and high yield.
1.2. Achievements in livestock breeding
a. Create new varieties
- Pig breed Dai Bach x Pig Ỉ 81 → Dai Bach le 81.
- Breed of Becsai pig x pig 81 → Becsai 81
– Two breeds Dai Bach 81 and Becsai 81 are easy to raise, fertile, give birth to many children, delicious meat, small bones, large stature, rapid weight gain, rich meat, promote good characteristics of parents, overcome disadvantages of smoldering pigs: a lot of fat, saggy back, short legs, saggy belly.
b. Improve local varieties
- Use the best female of the local breed, cross with the best male of the imported breed, use the male continuously for generations.
- Breeding Becsai slag the female → Improve some disadvantages of Mong Cai, improve the stature of foreign breeds, high lean percentage, good adaptability.
- Vietnamese Golden Cow x Dutch dairy cow → dairy cow with high milk production.
c. Create a hybrid advantage
- Economic hybrid pigs: Mong Cai x Dai Bach have high vitality, fast weight gain, high lean percentage.
- Vietnamese carp x Hungarian carp.
- Vietnamese curry chicken x Tam Hoang chicken.
d. Breeding adapted to imported varieties
- Breeds of white pomfret, Tam Hoang chicken, imported dairy cows, bred to adapt to the climate and take care in Vietnam for high yield of meat, eggs and milk.
e. Application of biotechnology in breeding
- Transplanting embryos from high yielding cows to other cows → From cows to produce 100-5000 cows/year.
- Artificial insemination using sperm preserved in a preparation environment → reduce the quantity, improve the quality of males, and facilitate production in remote areas.
- Gene technology for sex detection → male-female regulation in production. Determine genotype → choose good varieties.
2. Illustrated exercise
In plant breeding, what methods were used? Which method is considered fundamental?
- In plant breeding, sexual hybridization methods have been used to create combinatorial variation, experimental mutations to create polyploid varieties, and to create hybrid dominant (F1) varieties combined with fish selection methods. body.
- Among the above breeding methods, sexual hybridization is still considered as the basic method.
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: In livestock breeding, which method is mainly used? Why? For example.
Verse 2: What are the most outstanding achievements in plant or animal breeding in Vietnam?
Question 3: List some achievements of livestock breeding
Question 4: In plant breeding, what methods were used? Which method is considered fundamental? Give examples illustrating the results of each of those methods.
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: Our country has shortened the time to create new varieties and created valuable characteristics that traditional breeding methods have not been able to do thanks to?
A. Applying the laws of variation
B. Using molecular and cellular techniques
C. Applying the laws of heredity – variation, using molecular and cellular techniques
D. Using Selective Methods
Verse 2: What are the most outstanding achievements in plant breeding in our country?
A. Select varieties of rice, peanuts, tomatoes
B. Select corn, sugarcane, soybean varieties
C. Select varieties of rice, maize, soybean
D. Select varieties of soybeans, peanuts, tomatoes
Question 3: The task of breeding science is
A. Improvement of existing livestock and plant varieties
B. Improvement of existing varieties of livestock, plants and microorganisms
C. Creating new varieties with high yield, increasing output and quality, meeting the increasing requirements of people
D. Both A and C
After completing this lesson, you should:
- Understand commonly used methods of breeding livestock and plants.
- Describe the method that is considered the basic in plant breeding.
- Describe the main methods of livestock breeding.
- Present outstanding achievements in plant and animal breeding.