Biology 9 Lesson 29 Inherited Diseases and Diseases in Humans
1. Theoretical Summary
1.1. Some genetic diseases in humans
People with Down’s disease: in the set of chromosomes, there are 47 pieces (one extra in pair number 21).
Manifestations: Small, short, retracted neck, protruding tongue, puffy cheeks, slightly deep eyes and one eyelid, congenital dullness and no children.
b. Turner disease
– People with disease: In the set of chromosomes, there are 45 pieces (missing 1 X chromosome in the sex chromosome pair)
– Manifestations: Female, short, short neck, underdeveloped mammary glands, often stillborn. If they live to adulthood, they often lose their minds and have no children.
c. Albinism and congenital deafness
- Albinism: Due to a recessive gene mutation, the patient has white skin, white hair, and pink eyes.
- Congenital deafness: Caused by a recessive gene mutation.
1.2. Genetic defects in humans
- Cleft lip-jaw defect.
- The hand is missing some fingers.
- Defective foot loss and sticky toe.
- Multi-fingered hand.
- Congenital nearsightedness – farsightedness…
1.3. Measures to limit diseases and genetic diseases
- Fight against the production and use of nuclear weapons, chemical weapons and acts of environmental pollution.
- Correct use of pesticides, insecticides…
- Limit marriage between people who are at risk of carrying the disease gene or limit having children in those couples…
2. Illustrated exercise
Can we recognize the patient of the knife and the patient of Turner, the patient with albinism through what morphological characteristics?
- Patients with Dao have external manifestations: short, retracted neck, puffy cheeks, slightly open mouth, protruding tongue, monolid eyes, slightly deep, distance between eyes, short fingers.
- Patient Turner has a short female appearance, a short neck, and underdeveloped mammary glands.
- Patients with albinism have white skin, hair, pink pupils, and poor vision.
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: State the causes of genetic diseases and diseases in humans and some measures to limit the arising of such diseases and diseases.
Verse 2: State the genetic features of albinism, congenital deafness, and six-finger malformation in humans.
Question 3: State the causes of genetic diseases and diseases in humans and some measures to limit the arising of such diseases and diseases.
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: Which of the following is not a cause of genetic diseases in humans?
A. Due to close marriage within 3 generations
B. Woman over 35 years old still giving birth
C. Due to lack of nutrients
D. Living in an environment heavily polluted by radiation and chemicals
Verse 2: Down syndrome in humans is a mutated form:
A. An aneuploidy occurs on a pair of autosomes
B. Polyploidy occurs on autosomes
C. Aneuploidy occurs on sex chromosomes
D. Polyploidy occurs on sex chromosomes
Question 3: Congenital deafness is caused by:
A. Autosomal recessive mutations
B. Autosomal dominant mutation
C. A recessive gene mutation located on the sex chromosome
D. The dominant gene mutation is located on the sex chromosome
Question 4: Possible causes of genetic diseases and birth defects in humans are:
A. Physical and chemical agents in nature
B. Pollution of living environment
C. Disorders of metabolic activity inside cells
D. Both A, B, C are correct
Question 5: Symptoms of albinism are:
A. Often suffers from memory loss
B. Sexual dysfunction and childlessness
C. Often died prematurely
D. Skin and hair are white
After completing this lesson, you should:
- Name some diseases that are inherited in humans.
- Apply measures to limit diseases and genetic diseases.