Biology 9 Lesson 17: Relationship between genes and RNA
1. Theoretical Summary
a. RNA structure:
- RNA is made up of elements: C, H, O, N and P.
- Structure according to the principle of polymolecular, monomers are nucleotides.
- Nucleotide structure consists of: ribozo sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base group.
- RNA is a macromolecule (smaller size and mass than DNA).
- RNA is made up of a polymeric principle where the monomers are nucleotides (ribonucleotides A, U, G, X) linked to form a single helix.
b. What is the function of RNA?
-mRNA carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes for protein synthesis.
tRNA transports amino acids to the ribosome.
-rRNA together with proteins makes up ribosomes which are the site of protein synthesis.
1.2. How is RNA synthesized?
– The process of RNA synthesis takes place in the nucleus of the cell, at the chromosomes during interphase.
RNA synthesis process:
- Gene untwisted, gradually separating 2 single strands.
- Nucleotides on the template strand have just separated and are linked to free nucleotides in the intracellular environment according to the A-U complementation principle; T – A; G – X; X-G.
- When RNA synthesis is complete, it leaves the nucleus and leaves the cytoplasm.
– The process of RNA synthesis is based on the principle of a single strand of a gene and the principle of complementarity.
– Relationship between genes and RNA:
- The sequence of nucleotides on the template strand of a gene determines the sequence of nucleotides on the mRNA strand.
- Gene is the original code that carries genetic information, RNA is the transcript that conveys genetic information.
2. Illustrated exercise
The basic differences in the structure of DNA and RNA.
- Basic differences in the structure of DNA and RNA
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: What are the principles of RNA synthesis? State the nature of the relationship according to the gene-RNA diagram
Verse 2: An mRNA fragment with the sequence of nucleotides: UUAXUAAUUXGA
1. Determine the sequence of nucleotides on each single strand of the gene that synthesizes the mRNA?
2. The above mRNA fragment participates in creating amino acid chains. Determine the number of amino acids in the chain formed from the mRNA strand?
Question 3: In prokaryotic cells, consider a gene 4080 Å long, containing 560 Adenine. The first single-stranded gene has 260 Adenine and 380 Guanin, which requires an intracellular environment to provide 600 Uraxin.
1. Calculate the number of each type of nucleotide on the gene.
2. Calculate the number of each type of nucleotide on the strand carrying the original code of the gene.
3. Calculate the number of nucleotides of each type on the mRNA transcribed by the gene.
Question 4: How is RNA synthesized? Describe the relationship between genes and RNA.
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: The type of nucleotide found in RNA and not found in DNA is:
Verse 2: The chemical elements in the composition of RNA are:
A. C, H, O, N, P
B. C, H, O, P, Ca
C. K, H, P, O, S
D. C, O, N, P, W
Question 3: The symbol for the messenger RNA molecule is:
Question 4: The function of tRNA is:
A. Transmits protein structure information to ribosomes
B. Transporting amino acids for protein synthesis
C. Participate in the structure of the nucleus of the cell
D. Participate in the structure of cell membranes
Question 5: The following structures that participate in ribosomes are:
After completing this lesson, you should:
- Describe the structure of RNA and the functions of different types of RNA.
- Know that RNA formation is based on the template strand of the gene and takes place according to the principle of complementarity.
- State the relationship between genes and RNA