Chemistry 8 Lesson 37: Acid Base Salt
1. Theoretical Summary
An acid molecule consists of one or more hydrogen atoms bonded to an acid base, which can be replaced by metal atoms.
b. Formula of acid
– n: is the index of the H . atom
– A: is an acid radical
– Acids without oxygen: HCl, H2S…
– Acid with oxygen: HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4 …
* Acids with oxygen
Nomenclature: Acid name: acid + Nonmetal name +ic
Example: HNO3 (Nitric Acid), H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid)…
*Acids without oxygen
Nomenclature: acid + nonmetal + hydride
Example: SUCCESS2S (sulfuric acid), HCl (hydrochloric acid)…
*Acids with little oxygen
How to name: acid + PK +
Example: SUCCESS2SO3 (sulfur acid). Original =SO3 named sulfite
A base is a molecule consisting of a metallic element bonded to one or more hydroxide groups (-OH).
b. Chemical formula
– M: is a metallic element
– n: is the index of the group (-OH)
c. Classification of bases
– Soluble base (alkaline), soluble in water: NaOH; Ca(OH)2…
– Insoluble base, insoluble in water: Fe(OH)3; Cu(OH)2…
Base name = Metal name(If metal has multiple valencies, name and valence name) + hydroxide.
Eg: Ca(OH)2 Calcium hydroxide; Fe(OH)3 iron(III) hydroxide.
A salt molecule consists of one or more metal atoms bonded to one or more acid radicals.
b. Chemical formula
M: is a metallic element
x: is the index of the US
A: is an acid radical
y is the index of the acid radical
c. How to read salt name
Salt name = metal name (with valency of metals with multiple valences) + acid base name
Names of some salt roots: -Cl (chloride), =SO4 (sulfate), -NO3 (nitrate), =CO3 (carbonate), -HCO3 (Hydrocarbonate), -HSO4 (Hydrosulphate)
Eg: NaCl (Sodium chloride), CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate), Fe2(SO)4)3 Iron (III) sulfate, KHCO3 (Potassium Hydrocarbonate)…
d. Salt classification
Neutral salt: A salt in which there is no “H” atom in the acid base, which can be replaced by a metal atom such as ZnSO .4; Cu(NO3)2…
Acid salt: A salt in which the acid base has an “H” atom that has not been replaced by a metal atom such as NaHCO3; Ca(HCO3)2…
2. Illustrated exercise
2.1. Form 1: Acid exercises
Lesson 1: Give examples of some known acids. Please comment on the similarities and differences in the molecular components above.
Some acids are: HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, H3PO4
Alike: All have H atoms.
Other: H atoms are bonded to different groups of atoms (acid radicals).
Lesson 2: Write the chemical formulas of the acids given below and give their names. (-Cl, = SO3, = SO4, = S, -NO3.)
a) sulfuric acid.
b) carbonic acid.
c) phosphoric acid.
The acids with the corresponding formulas and names are:
With the -Cl radical, we have hydrochloric acid HCl
Corresponding to root = SO3 we have sulfuric acid H2SO3
Corresponding to root = SO4 we have sulfuric acid H2SO4
For radical = S we have sulfuric acid H2S
Corresponds to the root -NO3 we have nitric acid HNO3
2.2. Form 2: Exercises on bases
Write the chemical formulas of the bases for the following oxides: BaO; MgO; FeO and name the bases above.
The corresponding bases are: Ba(OH)2; Mg(OH)2; Fe(OH)2
Name of base Ba(OH)2 is: Barium hydroxide
Name of base Mg(OH)2 is: Magnesium hydroxide
Name of the base Fe(OH)2 are: Iron (II) hydroxide
2.3. Form 3: Salt exercise
Lesson 1: The chemical formulas corresponding to the following names are:
Zinc Chloride, Aluminum Sulfate, Iron (III) nitrate, Potassium Hydrocarbonate, Sodium Hydrosulphate.
Zinc chloride: ZnCl2
Aluminum sulfate: Al2(SO)4)3
Iron (III) nitrate: Fe(NO .)3)3
Potassium Hydrocarbonate: KHCO3
Lesson 2: Which of the following salts is an acidic salt and which is a neutral salt?
NaH2PO4, BaCO3, Na2SO4, Na2HPO4, KY2SO4, Fe(NO3)3
Neutral salt: A salt in which there is no “H” atom in the acid base that can be replaced by a metal atom: BaCO3, Na2SO4, KY2SO4, Fe(NO3)3
Acid salt: A salt in which the acid base and the “H” atom have not been replaced by a metal atom is: NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: THEIR NAME2SO3 what?
Verse 2: There are 3 solids, Cu, Al, CuO, stored separately in 3 bottles with missing labels. To identify the above 3 solids, we use the reagent is?
Question 3: Write the chemical formula (CTHH) of the salts with the following names: Calcium chloride, potassium nitrate, potassium phosphate, aluminum sulfate, iron(III) nitrate?
Question 4: Write the formulas of the hydroxides for the following metals: sodium, calcium, chromium, barium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron. The valence of chromium is III, copper is II and iron is III?
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: To identify HCl, NaOH, MgSO4 we use:
A. Purple litmus
Verse 2: Name of NaOH:
A. Sodium oxide
B. Sodium hydroxide
C. Sodium (II) hydroxide
D. Sodium hydride
Question 3: Acid base of HNO . acid3 What chemotherapy?
Question 4: A base that is insoluble in water is:
Question 5: Which of the following salts contains the valence metal II: Al2(SO)4)3; Na2SO4; KY2SO4; BaCl2; CuSO4
A. KY2SO4; BaCl2
C. BaCl2; CuSO4
After the lesson you will know:
- Define acids, bases, and salts according to their atomic composition
- Names for acids, bases, and salts
- Classification of acids, bases, and salts