Biology 8 Lesson 7: Skeletons
1. Summary of theory
1.1. The main parts of the skeleton
The skeleton is divided into three parts: the head bones, the trunk bones, and the limbs.
+ Skull: 8 bones put together to create a large skull containing the brain.
+ Small facial bones, jaw less coarse than animals.
– Body bones:
+ Spine: consists of many vertebrae that fit together and curve in 4 places into 2 consecutive Ss to help the body stand upright.
Ribs: Attach to the spine and sternum to form the ribcage.
+ Upper limb bones: including shoulder belt and free parts.
+ Lower limb bones: including the hip belt and the free part.
⇒ All have similar parts but differ in size, structure of shoulder belt and hip belt, arrangement of bones of wrist, ankle, hand, foot.
– Support to help the body stay upright in space.
– Form the framework of the software, tendons, organs => have a certain shape
– Forms compartments to store and protect internal organs
Along with the muscular system is the attachment for the body to move.
1.2. Distinguish types of bones
– Long bones: tubular containing red marrow in children and yellow marrow in adults
- Example: shin bone, femur, shin bone
– Short bones: short size
- For example: bones of wrists, ankles, etc.
– Flat bones: flat, thin plate shape
- For example: shoulder blades,…
1.3. The joints
Joints are places where bones meet.
There are three types of joints: movable joints, semi-moving joints, and immobile joints.
2. Illustrated exercise
The human skeleton consists of how many parts? What bones does each part consist of?
– The skeleton is divided into 3 parts: the head bone, the body bone and the limb bone
- Skull: (8 bones assembled by immovable serrated joints) Contains the developing brain.
- Facial bone (chin protrusion) has 6 pairs of even bones fused into 1 block and 3 odd bones, movable x/jaw
+ Body bones:
- Spine: Divided into 5 segments (neck, thoracic, thoracic, lumbar, vertebral, cleft) many vertebrae have 4 curvatures (neck, thorax, back, sacrum)
- Thoracic: Sternum: 1 sternum. Ribs: 12 pairs of ribs
- Forelimb bones: including shoulder girdle and free part
- Posterior limb bones: including hip belt and free part
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: What does the difference between hand and leg bones mean for human activity?
Verse 2: Describe the structure and role of each type of joint
Question 3: Structure of each type of bone and their function
Verse 4: Compare limb bones and trunk bones.
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: Which of the following bones is different from the rest?
A. Arm bone
C. Leg bones
D. Shoulder blade
Verse 2: Which of the following bones make up the ribcage?
A. Spinal bones
D. All of the above answers
Question 3: What is the adaptive significance of the S-shaped curvature of the spine in humans?
A. Helps disperse force in all directions, reducing shock and head trauma.
B. Helps reduce the pressure of the spine on the chest and neck area.
C. Helps to reduce the risk of fracture of adjacent bones when moving.
D. All of the above answers.
Verse 4: How many pairs of ribs does the human body have?
A. 10 pairs
B. 13 pairs
C. 11 pairs
D. 12 pairs
Question 5: Which of the following bones is classified as long bones?
A. Skull bones
C. Pelvic bone
After completing this lesson, students should know the following requirements:
- Present the main parts of the skeleton and identify the main bones right in the body.
- Identify different types of bones and joints.
- Develop skills to work in groups and independently study textbooks.
- Practice skills of observation, comparison, knowledge recognition, and logical thinking.