Biology 8 Lesson 58: Gonads
1. Summary of theory
1.1 Overview of the gonads
- The gonads consist of testes (in men) and ovaries (in women).
- The testicles and ovaries, in addition to producing sex cells, also secrete sex hormones that are effective in the appearance of male and female sex characteristics as well as promote reproduction.
→ The activity of these endocrine glands is influenced by the hormones FSH and LH secreted by the pituitary gland.
1.2. Testicles and male sex hormones
- Sperm production.
- Secretion of male sex hormone Testosterone.
– Male sex hormones cause body changes during male puberty.
Grow fast, grow taller
1.3. Ovaries and female sex hormones
Ovaries: produce eggs.
- Secretion of female sex hormone ostrogen => changes in female body at puberty.
- Egg development and hormone secretion.
- Estrogen causes body changes during puberty in girls.
– Signs appearing in female puberty:
- Grow fast, the skin becomes smooth.
- Voice change, breast development.
- Grow pubic hair, armpit hair.
- Hips widen, buttocks, thighs develop.
- Genitals develop.
- Sweat and sebaceous glands develop.
- Acne appears.
- Start menstruation.
– Of the above signs, the beginning of menstruation is the most important sign that shows that you have reached puberty.
2. Illustrated exercise
Lesson 1: When do eggs start working in girls?
A. 9-10 years old.
B. 10-11 years old.
C. 11-12 years old.
D. 12-13 years old.
- Choose the answer: NO
- Explanation: Eggs begin to work in girls around 10-11 years of age.
Lesson 2: In what do egg cells begin to develop?
C. Ovarian cyst.
D. The corpus luteum.
- Choose the answer:
- Explanation: Egg cells begin to develop in the follicle.
Lesson 3: What are the causes of the body changes during puberty in boys and girls (during adolescence)? Which of these changes is important to note?
The hormones testosterone (in males) and estrogen (in females) cause changes during puberty. In which, the most important are signs of fertility (first ejaculation in men, first menstruation in women).
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Describe the functions of the testicles and ovaries.
Verse 2: Describe the role of hormones secreted by the gonads in the body changes in puberty?
Question 3: What effect does estrogen have on the female body?
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: The activity of the gonads is influenced by which hormone?
D. FSH and LH.
Verse 2: What is the function of the gonads consisting of testes and eggs?
A. Produce sex cells.
B. Secretion of sex hormones has the effect of showing characteristics to men and women.
C. Promotes fertility.
D. All three answers above.
Question 3: What male sex hormone do testicles secrete?
Verse 4: Which cells in the testicles secrete male sex hormones?
A. Interstitial cells.
B. Blood vessel cells.
C. Sperm cells.
D. seminiferous tubules.
Question 5: How does testosterone affect puberty in men?
A. Thyroid cartilage develops, exposing the pharynx.
C. Appearance of acne.
D. All three answers above.
After completing this lesson, you should know the following requirements:
- Describe the function of testes and ovaries.
- Name male and female sex hormones.
- Understand the influence of male and female sex hormones on the body changes during puberty.