Biology 8 Lesson 57: Pancreas and adrenal glands
1. Summary of theory
The pancreas is made up of pancreatic juice cells, alpha cells (secreting glucagon) and beta cells (secreting insulin).
⇒ Insulin and glucagon have the effect of regulating blood sugar to stay stable: insulin lowers blood sugar when blood sugar rises, glucagon raises blood sugar when blood sugar drops.
Functions of the pancreas:
- Exocrine function: secretes pancreatic juice.
- Endocrine function: performed by pancreatic islet cells.
- Located in the abdomen is considered a part of the digestive system, surrounded by the spleen, liver, stomach, gallbladder and small intestine, located behind the stomach close to the posterior abdominal wall.
- It is about 15.24cm long, rectangular and flat.
Pancreatic islet cells include:
- Cells → secrete the hormone glucagon
- Cells → secrete the hormone insulin
– The role of pancreatic hormones
– Plays a role in regulating the blood glucose level of the body, keeping it at a stable level of about 0.12%.
– When the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood increases → stimulates cells → secretes insulin hormone → breaks down glucose into glycogen stored in the liver and muscles → blood sugar drops
– When the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood decreases → stimulates cells → secretes glucagon hormone → converts glicogen accumulated in the liver into glucose → blood sugar increases → Thanks to the opposing effects of two hormones of the cell ensure pancreatitis that blood sugar is always stable.
Disturbances in the endocrine functioning of the pancreas will lead to diabetes (high blood sugar) or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
– Diabetes: Due to high blood levels, the kidneys can’t fully absorb it, so urine is excreted.
– Cause: due to cells → disorders not secreting the hormone insulin or because liver cells and muscles do not receive insulin.
– Consequences: prone to high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident causing paralysis or death.
1.2. Gland above the kidney
– Location: the adrenal gland consists of 1 pair, located on top of 2 kidneys.
– Structure and function:
- The shell: secretes hormones that regulate sodium and potassium salts, regulates blood sugar, changes male sexual characteristics
- The medulla: secretes adrenaline and noadrenalin, which regulates cardiovascular and respiratory activity, and glucagon regulates blood sugar.
Some diseases related to the adrenal gland:
- Chronic adrenal insufficiency: Addison’s disease.
- Hypercortisolism of the fire type: Cushing’s disease.
- Primary hypercortisolism: Conn’s disease.
- Male sex hormone disease.
- Hypermyelemia: Pheochromoxytom disease.
2. Illustrated exercise
Lesson 1: Which of the following structures is not part of the adrenal gland?
A. The glandular cortex.
B. The medulla oblongata.
C. Membrane bonding.
- Choose the answer: EASY
- Explanation: The ducts are not part of the structure of the adrenal gland.
Lesson 2: The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 layers, which 3 are those?
A. Top layer, mesh layer, bottom layer.
B. Bridge layer, fiber layer, mesh layer.
C. Bridge layer, middle layer, fiber layer.
D. Bridge layer, fiber layer, middle layer.
- Choose the answer: NO
- Explanation: The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 layers, namely the glomerulus, the fibrous layer, and the reticular layer.
Lesson 3: What is the function of the outer cortex of the hormone-secreting gland?
- The outer layer of the gland secretes hormones that regulate sodium and potassium salts in the blood.
Lesson 4: What is the cause of diabetes?
– Diabetes is a relatively common disease today caused by disorders of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (glucide, lipid and protein) caused by a decrease in insulin secretion by cells in the pancreas or pancreas. Insulin is still secreted normally, but the target cells lack insulin receptors, leading to a high rate of blood sugar that exceeds the ability to reabsorb (ie, beyond the threshold of the kidneys, so there is sugar in the urine). Based on the cause of the disease, medicine has differentiated into two types of diabetes: “type I diabetes” and “type II diabetes”.
– Type I diabetes accounts for 10% of people with diabetes because cells do not secrete enough insulin, so blood glucose increases after meals because it is not converted into glycogen stored in the liver and muscles. Yes, the percentage of glucose increases beyond the threshold, so the kidneys excrete it in the urine. Type I diabetes usually occurs in children between the ages of 12 and 13 but can also occur in older adults. People with this type of diabetes must be treated with regular daily insulin injections combined with a low-carbohydrate diet.
Type II diabetes usually appears in adults after the age of 40, and accounts for up to 90% of people with diabetes. In patients, the pancreas can secrete insulin normally, but the target cells lack insulin receptors, so blood sugar levels rise above the renal threshold, so glucose is eliminated in the urine. People with diabetes often eat a lot, drink a lot, urinate a lot, and lose weight quickly (rapid weight loss), which is called the “four many” syndrome.
– The disease is also common in people who are obese and rarely exercise.
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Describe the function of pancreatic hormones.
Verse 2: Describe the role of glands in the body.
Question 3: Describe the role of the adrenal gland?
Verse 4: How does the regulation of blood sugar always keep stable?
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: Which of the following structures is not part of the pancreas?
A. Bile duct.
B. The duodenum.
C. Bile ducts.
Verse 2: The pancreas has 2 types of cells, what are the 2 types of cells?
A. Glucagon-secreting cells and insulin-secreting cells.
B. Glyceril-secreting cells and insulin-secreting cells.
C. Glucagon-secreting cells and glucose-secreting cells.
D. Glucose secreting cells and insulin secreting cells.
Question 3: What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
A. Secretion of hormones that regulate blood sugar.
B. Secretion of pancreatic juice through the duct into the duodenum, helping the breakdown of food in the small intestine.
C. Glucagon secretion for glycogen metabolism.
D. Secretion of insulin to accumulate glucose.
Verse 4: When hungry, the pancreas secretes glucagon to do what?
A. Converts glucose into glycogen stored in the liver and muscles.
B. Stimulates cells to produce energy.
C. Convert stored glycogen to glucose.
D. Causing a feeling of hunger for the body to replenish energy.
Question 5: If the body secretes less insulin or does not secrete insulin, what disease will it lead to?
A. Dirty sugar.
D. High fever.
After completing this lesson, you should know the following requirements:
- Distinguish between the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas based on the structure of the gland.
- Mapping the function of the pancreas in blood sugar regulation.
- Describe the functions of the adrenal gland based on the structure of the gland.