Biology 8 Lesson 56: Pituitary and Thyroid
1. Summary of theory
– Small pea-sized pituitary located at the base of the skull, related to the hypothalamus (in the midbrain)
Consists of 3 lobes:
- Front lobe
- Posterior lobe
- Middle lobe: only in young children, has an effect on the distribution of skin pigmentation.
- Secretion of hormones that stimulate the activity of many other endocrine glands.
- Hormone secretion affects a number of physiological processes in the body
- The activity of the pituitary gland is directly or indirectly influenced by the nervous system
The pituitary gland is an important gland that directs the activities of most other endocrine glands and physiological processes of the body.
- Pituitary hormones and their effects
– Location: located in front of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx.
- Located in front of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx.
- It is the largest endocrine gland, weighing about 20-25g.
- Composed of: glandular follicles and secretory cells.
Structure: glandular follicles and glandular cells.
– Thyroid hormone is TH (tiroxin) contained in iodine which plays an important role in metabolism and metabolism of substances in cells. The hormone calcitonin and parathyroid hormone participate in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
2. Illustrated exercise
Lesson 1: Which line is the largest?
A. Pituitary gland.
B. Thyroid gland.
C. Parathyroid glands.
- Choose the answer: NO
- Explanation: The thyroid gland is the largest endocrine gland.
Lesson 2: The thyroid gland secretes which of the following hormones?
- Choose the answer: D.
- Explanation: The thyroid gland secretes the hormone tiroxin.
Lesson 3: The thyroid gland also secretes the hormone calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, what does it do?
- The thyroid gland also secretes the hormone calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, which is involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the blood.
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Describe the role of the thyroid and parathyroid glands?
Verse 2: Describe the role of the pituitary gland in the endocrine system?
Question 3: Differentiate between Basal’s disease and Iodine deficiency goiter.
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: The pituitary gland does not secrete which of the following hormones?
Verse 2: The posterior lobe secretes
A. Thyroid hormone.
B. Mammary gland hormone.
C. Growth hormone.
D. Antidiabetic hormone insipidus.
Question 3: The organ affected when the anterior lobe secretes corpus luteum is
C. Ovaries, testes.
D. Milk glands.
Verse 4: The anterior lobe does not secrete which of the following hormones?
A. Mammary gland hormone.
B. Growth hormone.
C. Adrenal cortex hormone.
D. Hormones against diabetes insipidus.
Question 5: What is the function of the posterior lobe of the antidiabetic insipidus?
A. Stay hydrated.
B. Development of the ovule.
D. Body growth.
After completing this lesson, students should know the following requirements:
- Describe the location, structure, and function of the pituitary gland.
- Describe the location and function of the thyroid gland
- Clearly define the cause-and-effect relationship between gland activity and diseases caused by too little or too much hormone secreted by the glands.