Biology 8 Lesson 55: General introduction to the endocrine system
1. Summary of theory
1.1. Features of endocrine glands
Endocrine glands play an important role in:
- Regulates physiological processes of the body.
- Especially metabolism, the process of metabolism of matter and energy in the cells of the body.
– Endocrine glands produce hormones through the bloodstream to target muscles to regulate physiological processes of the body.
– The impact is slow but lasting and on a large scale.
1.2. Distinguish endocrine from exocrine glands
The endocrine system includes: endocrine glands and exocrine glands.
Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands.
Note: There are a number of glands that are both endocrine and exocrine glands (phase glands), for example, the pancreas both secretes pancreatic juice into the intestines and secretes hormones into the bloodstream.
– The amount of secretions of endocrine glands is less than that of exocrine glands:
- Exocrine glands: sweat glands secrete 1 liter of sweat per day, salivary glands secrete 1.5 liters of saliva per day.
- Endocrine glands: The pancreas secretes 0.8 liters of secretion per day.
a. Properties of hormones
The endocrine system consists of a special structural system of muscles that secrete chemicals (called hormones) that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. The products of endocrine glands are hormones. Hormones have the following functions:
- Ensure normal physiological processes by regulating metabolism and metabolism in cells of organs.
- Maintain the stability of the environment in the body.
b. The role of hormones
– Helps regulate the normal physiological processes of the body (digestion, reproduction, development, metabolism).
– Helps maintain the stability of the body’s internal environment.
– Regulate the humoral activity of organs and self-regulate within the endocrine household.
2. Illustrated exercise
Lesson 1: What is hormone specificity?
A. Affects one or certain organs.
B. The hormone travels through the blood throughout the body.
C. Not species-specific.
D. Has high biological activity.
- Choose the answer: A
- Explanation: Hormonal specificity affects only one or certain organs.
Lesson 2: Which of the following is not true?
A. Cow’s insulin can be used instead of human.
B. Insulin secreted by the pancreas has the effect of lowering blood sugar.
C. The hormone has a very high biological activity.
D. The hormone travels through the blood throughout the body, so it affects all organs.
- Choose the answer: EASY
- Explanation: The hormone affects only one or certain organs although it travels through the blood throughout the body.
Lesson 3: What endocrine glands does the human body have?
– The human body has endocrine glands located in different locations in the body but all secrete hormones that hold different functions depending on each gland.
The following endocrine glands can be listed:
- The pituitary gland (also known as the inferior trochanteric gland) is located on the underside of the brain, above the pituitary socket of the sphenoid bone.
- The superior trochanter (or pineal gland) is located superior to the midbrain quadrilateral tubercles.
- The thyroid gland is located in front of the thyroid cartilage; Located behind, close to the thyroid gland, there are parathyroid or parathyroid glands consisting of 4 small glands.
- The hypothalamus or thymus is located behind the breastbone, between the lungs, in front of the heart. This gland develops in children and gradually atrophys in adults.
- The islets (endocrine part) of the pancreas.
- The adrenal gland is located on top of the two kidneys, consisting of the cortex and the medulla.
- The male (testes) and female (ovary) gonads both produce sex cells and secrete male or female sex hormones.
In addition to the official endocrine glands mentioned above, there are also groups of cells located on certain organs that also secrete hormones such as the heart, stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys …
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Compare the structure of the endocrine and exocrine glands. In what ways are they similar and different?
Verse 2: State the properties and roles of hormones, thereby clearly defining the importance of endocrine glands to life.
Question 3: What is the role of the endocrine glands?
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: The endocrine system plays a role in the metabolism of matter and energy in the cells of the body
A. Hormones from the endocrine glands.
B. Substance secreted by exocrine glands.
C. Physiology of the body.
D. Secretory gland cells.
Verse 2: The endocrine system has which of the following characteristics?
A. Regulate the physiological processes of the body.
B. Effects through blood.
C. Energy metabolism by hormones secreted by the endocrine glands.
D. All three answers above.
Question 3: Which of the following is not an endocrine gland?
A. Sweat glands.
C. Pituitary gland.
Verse 4: Which gland is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland?
B. Parathyroid glands.
C. Pituitary gland.
D. Pineal gland.
Question 5: What is the secretory product of the endocrine glands?
After completing this lesson, students should know the following requirements:
- Describe the similarities and differences between endocrine and exocrine glands
- Name the main endocrine glands of the body and identify their locations.
- Clearly state the properties and roles of hormones (secretory products of endocrine glands), thereby stating the importance of endocrine glands to life.