Biology 8 Lesson 47: The brain
1. Summary of theory
1.1. Structure of the cerebrum
– The human cerebrum is very developed, covering both the midbrain and the midbrain.
a. External structure
The surface of the cerebrum is covered with a layer of gray matter that forms the cerebral cortex. The surface of the cerebrum has many folds, which are the gray matter and slits and grooves. Increases the surface area of the cerebral cortex (where the bodies of neurons are located) up to 2300 – 2500cm2. More than two-thirds of the surface of the cerebral cortex is located in fissures and grooves, the cortex is only about 2-3 mm thick, consisting of 6 layers, mainly pyramidal cells.
b. Internal structure
The fissures divide each half of the cerebrum into lobes. The parietal fissure separates the frontal and parietal lobes, and the temporal fissure separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobes. Within the lobes, the slits have formed ridges or gyruses of the brain.
+ Gray matter: forms the cerebral cortex, about 2-3mm thick, is the center of the cerebral cortex
White matter is the nerve pathways
- Connect cortical regions.
- Connect the two halves of the brain.
- Connects the cerebral cortex to the lower parts of the brain and the spinal cord.
– Under the cerebral cortex is the coating substance, which contains the basal nuclei (subcortical nuclei).
1.2. Functional zoning of the cerebrum
– The fissures and fissures divide the brain into lobes and gyrus, in which there are sensory areas, motor areas, especially language motor areas and speech and writing comprehension areas.
1 – Visual area
3 – Sensory Zone
4 – Motor zone
5 – Language motor area (speaking and writing)
6 – Speech comprehension area
7 – Writing comprehension area
8 – Taste Zone
12 – Hearing Area
2. Illustrated exercise
Lesson 1: Why can people use language to communicate?
A. The human brain has a language motor area and an understanding of speech and writing.
B. The evolved human facial muscles work flexibly
C. Due to the characteristics of primates
D. The human brain has enough motor and sensory regions
- Choose the answer: A
- Explanation: In humans, there are areas of language motor and language comprehension that allow people to perform the complex activities of speaking and writing.
Lesson 2: Which of the following correctly identified?
A. The temporal fissure separates the frontal and parietal lobes.
B. The temporal fissure separates the parietal and occipital lobes.
C. The temporal fissure separates the parietal and frontal lobes from the temporal lobe.
D. The temporal fissure separates the 2 temporal lobes.
- Choose the answer:
- Explanation: The temporal fissure separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobes and the frontal lobe.
Lesson 3: During sleep, certain areas of the cerebrum are not completely at rest, but continue to be excited. Explain the phenomenon of sleepwalking?
- During sleep, certain areas of the cerebrum are not completely at rest, but continue to be excited.
- Explanation: Only the motor part of the brain is excited to cause sleepwalking. Sleepwalkers remain active with their eyes closed and unable to locate their surroundings.
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Describe the internal structure of the cerebrum.
Verse 2: Describe the structure and function of the human brain, demonstrating the evolution of humans compared to animals of other classes.
Question 3: If the occipital lobe is damaged, what will the body show?
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: The part of the brain that divides the cerebrum into two halves?
A. Temporal fissure
B. Intermediate brain
C. Interhemispheric Trench
D. Top notch
Verse 2: What is the function of wrinkles on the cerebral cortex?
A. Decrease in brain volume
B. Increase the surface area
C. Reduce the weight of the brain
D. Neuron Production
Question 3: What is the function of white matter in the cerebral cortex?
A. Connects regions of the cerebral cortex and connects the two halves of the brain together
B. Connects regions of the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord
C. Connecting the two halves of the cerebrum and the cerebellum
D. Connecting the two halves of the cerebrum and the midbrain
Verse 4: What is the function of the sensory regions of the cerebrum?
A. Receive and analyze nerve impulses from motor organs.
B. Receive and analyze nerve impulses from external and internal receptors.
C. Receive and analyze nerve impulses from the cerebellum.
D. All of the above answers are correct.
Question 5: Where is the occipital lobe of the brain located?
A. In front of the forehead
B. The sun
C. Center of the brain
D. Behind the brain
After completing this lesson, students should know the following requirements:
- Describe the structure and function of the cerebrum
- Observe and analyze images.
- Practice teamwork skills.
- Consciously build scientific living habits to protect the nervous system.