Biology 8 Lesson 46: Cerebellum, cerebellum, medial brain
1. Summary of theory
1.1. Location and components of the brain
The brain consists of:
- Cerebral column: adjacent to the spinal cord below.
- Cerebellum: located behind the brain stem.
- Midbrain: located between the brainstem and the cerebrum.
- Cerebrum: the largest, located on the cerebellum.
1.2. Structure and function of the brain
– The brainstem includes: medulla, pons, midbrain (including brain stem and quartile brain)
– External white matter: includes the ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) pathways that communicate with the spinal cord and other parts of the brain.
– Inner gray matter: concentrated into the gray nucleus, which is the origin of 12 pairs of brain nerves, including 3 types:
- Sensory wire.
- Movement rope.
- Wire phase.
– Controls and regulates the activities of the internal organs (circulation, respiration, digestion) by the gray nucleus.
– Conduction (up and down) is carried out by white matter.
1.3. Intermediate brain
The medial brain consists of the thalamus and the hypothalamus
thalamus → conduction of sensation from bottom to top
Hypothalamus → controls metabolism and regulates body temperature
- Controls metabolism and regulates body temperature
– Outer gray matter: makes up the cerebellar cortex and the nuclei
The inner white matter is the conduction pathways connecting the cerebellar cortex and nuclei to other parts of the nervous system
– Coordinate complex movements and balance the body.
- Destroying the pigeon cerebellum, the animal staggers, loses balance.
- Destroying one side of the frog cerebellum also causes the frog to jump and swim to the side where the cerebellum is destroyed.
2. Illustrated exercise
Lesson 1: What is the function of the midbrain?
A. Regulates metabolism and body temperature.
B. Keep balance, position the body in space.
C. Regulates metabolism and protects the body.
D. Clear separation of other brain structures.
- Choose the answer: A
- Explanation: The medial brain has a gray nucleus in the thalamus that controls metabolic reactions and regulates body temperature.
Lesson 2: Why do traffic laws stipulate that people who drink alcohol are not allowed to drive vehicles?
A. Alcohol contains a brain inhibitor.
B. Alcohol has a direct effect on the cerebellum.
C. Alcohol contains substances that affect the spinal cord.
D. Alcohol contains a brain stimulant.
- Choose the answer: NO
- Explanation: Alcohol contains substances that affect the activity of the cerebellum, making it difficult to locate the body in space, and if driving a vehicle in traffic, it is easy to cause an accident.
Lesson 3: Why does looking at my phone before going to bed make it difficult to sleep?
- Waves from electronic devices emit nerve stimulation that secretes euphoric substances, so it is difficult to return to a resting state ⇒ The brain is stimulated and excited.
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Which part of the body does the left cerebrum control?
Verse 2: In what position do the pairs of nerves to the brain usually cross?
Question 3: Compare the structure and function of the brainstem, medial brain and cerebellum.
Verse 4: Explain why people after drinking often have the expression of male feet kicking while walking
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: Which part is not a structure of the brainstem?
A. The hypothalamus
C. medulla oblongata
Verse 2: Which structure of the brain occupies the most area?
C. The cerebrum
D. Intermediate brain
Question 3: The brain stem is made up of what components?
A. Anterior and posterior nerve roots
B. Gray matter and white matter
C. Part of the spinal cord
D. Only gray matter or white matter
Verse 4: Which of the following is not a type of brain nerve?
A. Motor nerve
B. Spinal nerves
C. Sensory nerve
D. Phase nerve
Question 5: Which of the following correctly identified ?
A. White matter is responsible for processing information, including sensory lines that conduct up and motor lines that conduct down.
B. The white matter is the origin of the pairs of brain nerves, including the sensory lines that conduct up and the motor lines that conduct them down.
C. White matter is the origin of pairs of nerves, including motor lines that conduct up and down.
D. White matter is responsible for conduction, including sensory lines conducting up and motor lines conducting down.
After completing this lesson, you should know the following requirements:
- Identify the location and components of the brainstem. Describe the main functions of the brain stem.
- Identify the location and main function of the medial brain.
- Develop skills in observing and analyzing video channels. Group work skills. Educate the mind to protect the brain.