Biology 8 Lesson 1: Introduction
1. Summary of theory
1.1. Man’s place in nature
– Among the vertebrate classes, the Mammal class has the highest evolutionary position. Regarding the taxonomic position, humans belong to the class Mammal, the vertebrate branch.
The general structure of humans is very similar to that of vertebrates. Humans are similar to mammals in that they have cilia, give birth, have milk glands, and breastfeed their young ⇒ Humans are classified as vertebrates in the mammal class.
– The more evolved feature between humans and animals is that humans have thinking, voice, writing, walking on two legs, large brain development. ⇒ Humans are considered the most evolved class of animals.
The basic characteristics that distinguish humans from animals are:
- The skeletal division is suitable for manual labor and bipedal movement.
- Thanks to purposeful labor, people have become less dependent on nature.
- Having voice, writing has abstract thinking and forming consciousness.
- Know how to use fire to cook food.
- The brain develops, the skull is larger than the face.
1.2. Duties of the subject of human body and hygiene
– This subject tells us the purpose – tasks and measures to protect the human body
Learn the structural and functional features of the body from the level of cells → organs → organ systems and the body in relation to the environment with mechanisms that regulate life processes.
- Provides knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of the human body in relation to the environment.
- Knowledge of disease prevention and physical exercise.
⇒ The course helps us to understand the structural and functional characteristics of the body from the cellular → organ → organ system → organ system and body in relation to the environment along with the mechanisms that regulate processes. live to propose measures to protect the body.
– Knowledge of the human body is related to many sciences such as: medicine, psychology, education, painting, fashion, sports, etc.
1.3. Methods of learning human body and hygiene
Specific scientific learning methods are:
– Observe pictures, models, specimens, live samples… to understand the morphological characteristics and structure of organs.
– By experiment to find out scientific conclusions about physiological functions, organs, organ systems.
– Apply knowledge to explain actual phenomena, and apply hygiene and exercise measures.
2. Illustrated exercise
– In the 7th grade Biology program, which animals did you study?
– Which class of animals in the phylum Invertebrates has the highest evolutionary position?
– In the 7th grade Biology program, the children learned about 6 animal disciplines:
- Protozoa industry
- Division of intestinal cavity
- The phylums of worms: flatworms, roundworms, angiosperms
- Molluscs industry
- Arthritis industry
- The phylum of vertebrates includes the following classes: fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
– The class of animals in the phylum Invertebrates with the highest evolutionary position is the Mammal class (typically represented by humans).
Verse 2: What professions in society are closely related with knowledge about the human body and hygiene?
Knowledge of the human body and hygiene is closely related to many professions in society such as medicine, teachers, psychology, sports, nutrition counseling…
Question 3: In which of the following ways are humans different from mammals?
A. Having language (speech and writing)
B. Know how to make work tools for certain purposes
C. Know how to think
D. All of the above answers
Humans are more evolved than animals by the following characteristics:
– Differentiate the skeleton suitable for working functions and standing upright.
– The developed brain is the basis of language, writing, consciousness and abstract thinking.
Choose the answer: EASY
Question 4: Which of the following characteristics is present in both humans and all other mammals?
A. Have a menstrual cycle from 28 to 32 days
B. Walking on two legs
D. The facial bones are larger than the skull bones
All mammals breastfeed their young.
Choose the answer:
Question 5: Which of the following animals is most similar to humans?
99.4% of the most important DNA sites in the respective human and chimpanzee genes are identical.
Choose the answer:
3.1. Essay exercises
Question 1: Describe the similarities and differences between humans and animals of the class Mammal?
Verse 2: Tell us about the benefits of studying “Human Body and Hygiene”.
Question 3: What factors play a core role, helping people to be less dependent on nature?
Verse 4: What methods can we use to learn about the human body?
Question 5: Knowledge of the human body and hygiene are closely related to which industry?
3.2. Multiple choice exercises
Question 1: Arrange in the correct order from low to high the disciplines and classes studied.
A. Protozoa -> Intestines -> Roundworms -> Worms -> Mollusks -> Arthropods -> Vertebrates.
B. Protozoa -> Intestines -> Worms -> Roundworms -> Mollusks -> Arthropods -> Vertebrates.
C. Protozoa -> Molluscs -> Roundworms -> Worms -> Intestines -> Arthropods -> Vertebrates.
D. Protozoa -> Intestines -> Roundworms -> Angiosperms -> Arthropods -> Mollusks -> Vertebrates.
Verse 2: Arrange in the correct order from lowest to highest the classes of vertebrates
A. Fish -> Amphibians -> Reptiles -> Birds -> Animals
B. Fish -> Amphibians -> Reptiles -> Birds -> Animals
C. Fish -> Amphibians -> Reptiles -> Birds -> Animals
D. Fish -> Amphibians -> Reptiles -> Birds -> Animals
Question 3: Man is one of the representatives of
A. Reptile class.
B. Animal class.
C. Bird class.
D. class Amphibian.
Question 4: In the Animal kingdom, which species is currently at the forefront of evolution?
Question 5: In the animal kingdom, which species is currently at the forefront of evolution?
Question 6: Which of the following characteristics is unique to humans but not to other animals?
1. Know how to use fire to cook food
2. Walk on two legs
3. Having language and abstract thinking
4. Differentiated teeth
5. The body has two compartments: the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity separated by the diaphragm
A. 1, 3
B. 1, 2, 3
C. 2, 4, 5
D. 1, 3, 4
Verse 7: What is the mission of Biology 8?
A. Provide basic knowledge about structural and functional characteristics of the human body in relation to the environment
B. Provide knowledge about disease prevention and physical exercise
C. Elucidate some actual phenomena occurring on the human body
D. All other options
Verse 8: Man is one of the representatives of
A. Bird Class
B. Amphibian Class
C. Reptile Class
D. Animal Class
After studying the lesson preamble Here you need:
– Clearly state the purpose, tasks and significance of the course
– Identify the place of man in nature
– State the specific learning methods of the subject